Do Travel Therapists Work Overtime and Is It Worth It?

Written by: Jared Casazza, PT, DPT

“Travel Therapists Don’t Work Overtime”

When Whitney and I started traveling, we were told by most recruiters and other travel therapists that overtime in the travel therapy world is rare. We heard that facilities don’t want to pay extra to have a traveler working overtime, and they won’t allow them to get overtime. In general, that does seem to be the case for the majority of travelers, but it has definitely not been the case for me. In fact, in almost all of my contracts I’ve worked some overtime and in a couple of them I worked A LOT of overtime. I’m not exactly sure why this has been the case for me, but it is probably the combination of two factors:

  1. I was very eager to work all that I possibly could in order to save as much as possible for my first few years as a traveler. I went out of my way to offer to see extra patients or stay late at each of my contracts if needed. I also always asked about the potential for overtime in my phone interview with the facility, and in some cases their answer would sway my decision of which facility to choose if there was more than one that I liked.
  2. We worked primarily in small rural areas where they didn’t have PRN help. If it got busy, they were fine with me working extra hours in order to make sure all of the patients were seen. Whereas most clinics in more populated areas have PRN therapists they can call for help when things get busy, many rural facilities do not, so that means overtime for the regular staff, even if that happens to be a traveler.

It’s true that most facilities do everything possible to avoid having travelers work overtime. The big reason for that, of course, is money. Bill rates for travelers can be huge, and often the facility is obligated to pay 1.5x the bill rate for any hours worked over 40. That could mean that a facility is paying $100/hour or more for each hour of overtime that we work in some cases! Meanwhile, 1.5x the hourly rate for a permanent employee is likely in the $50-$60/hour range, which is much more palatable for them. Even though this is the case, I’ve found that often the permanent staff isn’t willing to work overtime, so with no PRN help and me being eager to work all the hours I can, they just approve it. Or, in some cases, I’ve been the only PT on staff, with no permanent PTs or PRN PTs. So in that case, if patients need to be seen outside of 40 hours of work, then I’m the only option and thus get asked to work overtime.

My Experience

In my first two years as a new grad travel therapist, I worked a total of over 400 hours of overtime! That’s an average of about 4 hours per week, but that wasn’t distributed evenly. Most weeks I worked only 40 hours (even less in some cases), but then other weeks I worked as many as 65 hours when a facility was really desperate to have patients seen. That meant some really long weeks sometimes, but I was very happy with the extra money!

Facilities/managers will often approve a couple of hours of overtime per week for a traveler, but there are rare cases where they will approve as much overtime as is needed. When those times came around, I took advantage!

Is Working Overtime Worth it as a Travel Therapist?

Whether or not it’s worth it to work overtime as a travel therapist depends on a couple of factors:

  1. How much you’re earning for each hour of overtime that you work based on your contract.
  2. How eager you are to make extra money.

A mistake that I made early on as a travel therapist was not negotiating a higher overtime rate, or even realizing that it was negotiable. As I mentioned above, the travel company can often make $100/hour or more when a traveler works overtime, because the facility pays out 1.5x the full bill rate, but that doesn’t mean that the extra money goes to the traveler automatically. In fact, in most cases the traveler will make only 1.5x their taxable pay rate, which often means overtime pay in the $30-$35/hour range. This means the amount they’re making for overtime hours is actually less than the amount they make during normal hours. How does that work exactly? Because during normal hours, we get paid our hourly taxable pay + our stipend pay. Whereas, if we’re only making 1.5x the hourly taxable rate with no additional stipends for the overtime hours, the overtime pay is actually less than the normal pay. In this case, the extra money is made mostly by the travel company, not the traveler, because the facility is still paying the travel company 1.5x the full bill rate.

This happened to me in the beginning, but I quickly wised up and you should too if you’re planning to work overtime. I recommend that you negotiate at least 2x (ideally 3x or more) your normal taxable pay for working overtime hours. Keep in mind that stipends can’t be increased when working overtime, because there is a max amount of stipends you’re legally allowed to earn each week regardless of working over 40 hours, but a multiple of the hourly rate should be possible. Another option that some companies do instead of writing in a certain hourly rate for the overtime hours is they’ll arrange for you to receive an additional bonus at the end of the contract for any overtime hours worked, which equals out to the extra money you should be receiving on an hourly basis for each hour worked. This has been the case with one company we’ve worked with. However, if a company tells me overtime rates are not negotiable period, then that’s a deal breaker for me in terms of working with that travel company.

Many travel therapists have no desire to work overtime. Since we already make a lot more money than at permanent positions in most cases, these travelers don’t see the need to work extra hours. This is especially the case in desirable areas where working longer hours takes away from time that could be spent exploring! This is completely understandable, and if you value your free time more than you value the extra money that you’d make while working overtime, then feel free to decline the hours. A facility can’t require that you work hours that aren’t in your contract, so you’re in the drivers seat in this situation.

Conclusion

If you look for opportunities to work overtime as a travel therapist, you can usually get some extra hours depending on the facility and location. Whether or not the extra hours are worth it depends on you and your priorities.

If there is at all any potential for you to work overtime based on what you hear during the phone interview, make sure to negotiate a higher rate for those hours than the standard 1.5x hourly taxable rate. Don’t get taken advantage of by the travel company earning a lot of extra money for your overtime hours like I did when starting out! If the travel company/recruiter that you’re working with isn’t willing to work with you to find a fair amount for your overtime work, then there are plenty of other fish in the sea!

If you’d like some recommendations for recruiters/companies that we’ve had success working with, then reach out to us here and tell us about your main priorities as a travel therapist, and we’ll match you with a good fit. If you have any other questions about travel therapy or overtime pay, contact us!

 

Understanding a Travel Therapy Contract Bill Rate

Written by: Jared Casazza, PT, DPT

All travel therapists want to get the most money possible out of their contracts. In fact, the increased pay associated with travel therapy is the #1 reason that most people that we talk to choose to travel in the first place, so not getting as much money as possible would be no good. While there can often be room to negotiate when presented with an initial offer from a recruiter, there is, of course, a limit to how much they can actually pay a traveler for each contract. The big limiting factor in the equation of pay for any travel contract is the “bill rate.”

What is a Bill Rate?

A “bill rate” is the amount of money that the facility (hospital, clinic, nursing home, etc.) pays the travel company for each hour that a traveling therapist works. As travelers, this is a number that we rarely ever find out about, since it is negotiated between the travel company and the facility usually before they ever even list the job or present it to travelers. Most recruiters do not wish to share this number with travelers either, but you really can’t blame them for that. The bill rate is much higher than the hourly rate that the traveler receives, but that is because it has to account for all overhead costs and company profits as well, so sharing the bill rate could make the traveler feel like they’re being taken advantage of, even when that’s not the case. BluePipes wrote a great article on other reasons why travel companies don’t divulge bill rates as well, which you can find here.

How Much is an Average Bill Rate?

Bill rates vary drastically depending on setting and area of the country (just like traveler pay), but I’ve heard of ones as low as $60/hour and as high as $80/hour, which shows why there can be such variation in traveler pay across the board, since it’s all based on the bill rate. In some situations, the bill rate can even be higher if the facility is in urgent need of a traveler and is willing to pay more to get someone there quickly. In general, the facility is going to pay the travel company as little as possible, while ensuring that their opening will be filled, so how desperate they are can have a big impact on the bill rate.

So if a company is receiving around $70/hour ($70 x 40 = $2,800/week) from the facility, while the traveler is only getting a take home pay of about $1,600/week, where is that extra money going?!

Costs that have to be Subtracted from the Bill Rate

Overhead costs of running a travel company can be pretty high. The company has to pay staff (recruiters, managers, payroll department, benefits department, etc.), for rent and utilities on their offices, for marketing, for taxes, and they also have to make a profit in order to stay in business. This all usually adds up to about 20-25% of the total bill rate, depending on how big the company is and how much their overhead costs in total. That means that after overhead costs are subtracted out, that $2,800/week turns into about $2,100/week.

From there, we have to consider that the company pays for part of the traveler’s health insurance (assuming the traveler chooses one of the company sponsored plans); maintenance fees on 401k plan; CEUs (if offered by the company); FICA taxes on the traveler’s hourly pay (7.65%); and credentialing costs for the traveler for each assignment such as: license reimbursement, travel reimbursement, drug tests, TB tests, and backgrounds checks.

They also usually have to keep a small percentage to account for contract cancellations, since when a traveler’s contract is cancelled early, not only does the traveler lose out on money, but so does the travel company. I think of this as like an “emergency fund” for the travel company for when unexpected events occur.

It’s also important to keep in mind that the “take home pay” amounts that we usually use to discuss travel contracts is after the traveler’s taxes are subtracted out, which means that the travel company actually pays you more than that amount, but that’s the amount you see on your paycheck after federal, state and FICA taxes are subtracted. So “take home pay” refers to after-tax, or net pay, not gross pay.

For example, a $1,600/week “take home pay” usually means that the travel company actually pays out $1,800/week in gross pay to the traveler. It’s easy to see how the $2,100/week devoted to the traveler’s pay can quickly be reduced to much closer to that $1,800/week figure paid out to the traveler each week, once all of the above costs are factored in.

Getting the Highest Pay Possible

In most cases, honest recruiters are doing their best to offer the highest pay possible to the traveler, within the bounds of the bill rate that they have to work with. Many travelers hear about how high some bill rates can be and quickly assume that recruiters are trying to take advantage of them, without first considering all of the costs incurred by the company, taxes they have to pay, and also also the benefits offered to the traveler that aren’t seen in the weekly take home pay number. Don’t forget to consider these factors before jumping to conclusions! But, it doesn’t hurt to push for more money when you feel it’s warranted, have considered all the “extras” already included in your pay package, and have considered the type of job, location, and cost of living!

The bill rate is also the reason that it is important for travelers to push for higher pay for overtime hours worked. Overhead costs don’t need to be factored into overtime hours worked, due to them already being accounts for in the initial 40 hours. With overtime, the company will get the same bill rate (sometimes 1.5x the bill rate even), while the traveler only receives 1.5x their taxable pay rate in most cases. This is a great situation for the travel company, but a terrible situation for the traveler. So understanding how the bill rate works and how your pay is broken down is a key factor here in advocating for yourself with a higher overtime rate!

Conclusion

It’s very important to have an understanding of the bill rate and all the costs that must come out of that hourly pay amount the travel company receives from the facility, in order to understand how your weekly take home pay is determined as a travel therapist. The more you understand, the better you can advocate for yourself and get the highest pay possible.

I hope you have a little better insight into how the weekly take home pay amount is calculated now with a basic understanding of bill rates!

Thanks for reading and feel free to ask any questions you may have on bill rates or anything else travel therapy related in the comments below or contact us directly. If you need some recruiter/travel company recommendations that we trust to not take advantage of you as a traveler, then send us a message here and we’ll help you out!

Should You Get a Contract Extension Bonus as a Travel Therapist?

Written by: Jared Casazza, PT, DPT

The Benefits of Extending a Contract

If you are a prospective or current traveler whose primary goal with travel therapy is to earn as much money as possible (likely to pay off student debt), then extending contracts when possible is a great idea. Whitney and I always try to extend contracts in places that we enjoy, and I actually extended my very first contract as a new grad twice for a total of nine months there. Extending a contract means less, or hopefully no, downtime between contracts since you don’t have to move to a new location. Most travelers choose to take at least a week off between contracts to move to their new assignment location. but that missed work means less money earned. Mitigating time off is a primary way to earn more throughout the year. Additionally, extending a contract is also easier because you’re already accustomed to the facility, staff, and patients.

Another big benefit of extending a contract is that you can almost always earn more money on the extension than you did on the original contract, either in the form of a bonus or an increase in taxable hourly pay. We usually try to get about $1-$2/hour extra when extending a contract, which ends up being $40-$80 more per week or $500-$1,000 more over the course of a 13 week contract! A dollar or two extra per hour may not sound like much, but it really adds up over time. Another option is to have the travel company reimburse travel expenses incurred while traveling back to your tax home if you plan to do that at any time during the contract. A reimbursement is almost always better than increase in taxable pay, if possible, because reimbursements aren’t taxed and therefore will mean more money in your pocket.

Understanding “Extension Bonuses”

Some travelers believe that getting an extension bonus means that the recruiter was keeping more money than they needed to be on the original contract, and now they’re somehow able to offer you more money the second go round, but that is not the case. So where does the extra money come from? Let’s investigate the answer to this question!

When you start a new contract as a travel therapist, the travel company has some upfront costs that they have to cover in order for you to start. These costs include things like: travel reimbursement for you to get to the new place, license reimbursement if applicable, background check, drug test, and TB test. All of those costs added together can end up being a significant amount of money that the company pays out in the beginning before you ever start working at the new place. These costs have to be accounted for by the company of course, so they reduce the amount that you make each week so that these costs can be recovered throughout the course of the contract. This reduction in the traveler’s pay is to be expected since all of our pay, reimbursements, and the travel company’s overhead costs, as well as their profits, come out of the “bill rate” that the facility pays the company. In other words, all the money has to come from somewhere, and that somewhere is what the facility pays the travel company. Under normal circumstances where the traveler moves to a new facility after every contract with no extensions, the company has to incur these costs again before each new contract. On an extension however, these costs aren’t incurred again, which means that there is extra money that can be added to your pay!

Negotiating Extension Bonuses with Your Recruiter

Most experienced recruiters understand that by the traveler extending in a location, there will be extra money to allocate to the traveler on the extension. But I’ve worked with recruiters in the past that say that an extension bonus isn’t possible since the bill rate is the same for the extension, and the facility “isn’t offering any additional money.” Unfortunately, they were overlooking these costs that the company would be saving on the extension. After explaining how they would be saving money on the things I mentioned above for my extension, I’ve always been able to negotiate some amount of extra pay or bonus for the extension.

It’s important to discuss this with your recruiter and make sure you are on the same page. You are your own biggest advocate and need to be an informed and educated traveler.

Bottom Line

Less missed work and higher pay on an extension make it a no-brainer if you’re at a facility and location that you enjoy AND the facility needs continued help. Always be sure to ask for more money on an extension if the recruiter doesn’t automatically give it to you, and be sure to mention the costs that they would save by you extending instead of taking a new contract to back up your request.

If you have questions on this topic or would like recommendations from us on a contract, extension, or working with travel recruiters/companies, please reach out to us and we will be happy to help!

 

How Much Money Do Travel Therapists Make? The Comprehensive Guide to Travel Therapy Pay

Written by Jared Casazza, PT, DPT

Often the reason that people choose to pursue a career as a travel therapist, or even just decide to work a few travel therapy contracts, is to make more money. For people coming out of school with massive student loan debt, finding a way to deal with that debt is a primary concern, and travel therapy is a great way to make more money especially when starting out as a new grad. This leads to the most common question people have when first researching the pros and cons of travel therapy: How much money do travel therapists make?

Understanding Pay Differences for Travelers

Travel therapist pay is a little different from that of permanent full time positions, and therefore it commonly leads to some confusion for those first looking into pay differences between travel and permanent positions. Travel therapists’ compensation is made up of a combination of taxable pay and untaxed money (stipends for housing, meals, and incidentals) assuming that you meet the requirements for receiving the untaxed stipends. Since part of the money is untaxed, this leads to significantly higher net pay for a travel therapist. This is best illustrated through examples of each scenario.

Permanent Job Pay

First, let’s break down what a traditional pay package would look like at a permanent physical therapist job. This scenario would be comparable for an OT or SLP job as well. For PTA and COTA, the values would be lower, but the principle is the same.

Many new grads PTs accept a job with hourly pay in the $30-$35/hour range, but of course this can vary depending on the setting and the area of the country as well as your negotiating skills. I’ve talked to physical therapists that have taken a permanent job as a new grad making as low as $20/hour and others that have negotiated $40/hour, so the true range is massive, but around $30-$35 seems to be the average. We’ll take the top of that average range and find the gross yearly pay for someone working a permanent full time job making $35/hour:

  • $35/hour X 40 hours per week X 52 weeks per year = $72,800 annual salary

Gross pay is pretty straight forward and simple to understand, but determining how much of that gross pay you actually get to keep (i.e. net pay) is harder to understand and often overlooked when therapists talk about their hourly compensation or salary. Let’s look at how much of that money is yours after Uncle Sam takes his cut. The total percentage will depend on where you live, but on average across the country, a person making $75k is going to have about 25% taken out for taxes.  Click here for more information on tax rates in major cities across the country.  Here’s a look at the permanent physical therapist’s net pay after taxes based on the average 25% tax rate:

  • $72,800 X .75= $54,600 annual salary
  • $54,600/52= $1,050/week (if divided out into weekly pay in order to better compare to travel jobs )

This is an approximate bring home pay per week based on a $35 per hour job working 40 hours per week.  If you have offers for higher salary positions than that, feel free to use the calculations above to estimate your pay.  Note that all 401k (traditional), HSA contributions as well as all medical, dental, life, disability costs will come out of the gross salary.

For a more specific example we’ll use Virginia’s state tax rate. Not only is this where Whitney and I live and maintain our tax home, but it’s also near the middle of the range as far as state income taxes go, which makes it closer to the average for everyone. Pay Check City has a great tool to use for your specific scenario and is the site I’ll use to calculate the take home pay below.

paycheckcity example.png

$1,024/week would be the weekly take home pay for a permanent physical therapist in the above scenario who lives in Virginia, which is pretty close to the $1,050/week using the 25% rule of thumb above. For quick calculations, multiplying your salary or hourly rate by .75 is a good way to get an estimate of how much of your gross pay you actually keep.

Travel Job Pay

Now let’s take a look at how travel therapist pay differs. Travel pay consists of a few different parts:

  1. Hourly Rate (taxable)
  2. Housing allowance (not taxed)
  3. Meal and incidental allowance (not taxed)

Travel pay will generally be presented in a total gross or net weekly amount. If a gross weekly pay number is presented, then that would include the hourly taxable rate x 40 hours, then adding in the housing, meals, and incidentals stipends. If the net pay number is given, then that is usually calculated using the 25% tax rule of thumb above, which as we saw with the specific example isn’t always accurate, but it’s a good estimate of what the traveler’s tax rate might be. This would be gross pay x .75 then adding in the housing, meals, and incidentals stipends. If you know that your tax rate is different, for example if you have a family, then when a recruiter presents you with a gross and/or net weekly pay number, you need to be sure to run the numbers based on your tax rate.

Here are examples of two potential travel PT pay packages that Travis recently received to further help illustrate how travel therapist pay actually works:

Position 1:

  • Hourly rate: $20/hour (taxed)
  • Housing allowance: $630/week (not taxed)
  • Meals and Incidentals allowance: $230/week (not taxed)

Total take home pay (net pay using 25% rule of thumb above for the hourly wage) per week before deductions for benefits: $1,460 per week

Position 2:

  • Hourly rate: $20/hour (taxed)
  • Housing allowance: $730/week (not taxed)
  • Meals and Incidentals allowance: $330/week (not taxed)

Total take home pay (net pay using 25% rule of thumb above for the hourly wage) per week before deductions for benefits: $1,660 per week

How are Hourly Rates and Stipend Amounts Determined?

You may be looking at the travel pay package examples above and thinking, “If the stipends aren’t taxed, then why not make them as high as possible with a lower hourly wage to maximize net pay?” That’s a great question and something that I wondered when first starting out, which led to me doing a lot of research on the topic. There are a couple of reasons why this is illegal based on IRS tax laws.

The taxable hourly rate should be a reasonable amount for the job position in order to avoid “wage recharacterization.” To read the IRS definition of wage recharacterization, check out this link, but basically it means avoiding taxes by changing compensation from a taxable hourly wage to a nontaxed stipend. There is debate about what a reasonable wage is for various therapist positions, and it’s always best to consult a tax expert if you’re in doubt, but us here at Travel Therapy Mentor (all of whom are travel physical therapists) choose to keep our taxable wages at $20/hour or above to be safe and not take any risks as far as wage recharacterization is concerned for a physical therapist. This number may be different based on your profession and comfort level with the IRS law interpretation.

The other reason it isn’t possible to have massive stipends and a very low taxable wage is due to the GSA guidelines. The GSA determines the maximum allowable stipends for housing, meals, and incidentals in different areas throughout the country, and it applies to anyone traveling for work, including travel therapists. These numbers vary drastically depending on the area of the country you’ll be working in due to variance in the cost of living in each location. Keep in mind that these are the maximum amounts and not necessarily how much you will receive in stipends for that area. Depending on how much the facility that you’ll be working at as a traveler is able to pay for the position, you may receive significantly less than the maximum amounts. We always consult the GSA website before accepting a job offer to make sure that the stipends we will be receiving are not above the maximum amounts for that particular area.

These guidelines exist to keep people honest and not allow people to take advantage of the tax code, which is a good thing even though it’s a bummer that we can’t increase our pay more by paying even less in taxes as travel therapists. This leads to the next topic: what offers can you expect to receive as far as pay is concerned as a travel therapist?

Average Pay for Travel Therapists

Just as with permanent positions, travel pay can vary significantly depending on setting and location. I’ve talked to other physical therapists that make as low as $1,200/week take home pay and others that make as much as $2,200/week take home. That’s quite the range! And again, this will vary based on your specialty (PT, OT, SLP, PTA, COTA).

In general, the highest paying contracts are seen with home health and lowest paying are skilled nursing facilities, in our experience. Also in general, jobs on the west coast pay more than the east coast, and jobs in rural areas pay more than cities and urban areas. These observations were a surprise to us when starting out, since this is often different than the factors affecting pay in permanent positions. Taking the above into account, it’s easy to see why someone working a home health job in a rural location in California would make a lot more than someone working a skilled nursing job in Richmond, VA. Another factor that affects pay significantly is how desperate the facility is to fill the position quickly. Whitney and I once found contracts on the east coast at a wonderful outpatient facility in a great location that paid us very well because they needed the positions filled very quickly and we were ready to go!

With the above factors in mind, an average pay range for a traveling physical therapist is between $1,600-$1,800/week after taxes in our experience based on the US as a whole and all settings considered. Whitney and I have personally averaged around $1,650/week after taxes over the past three years while taking contracts exclusively on the east coast and almost always in outpatient facilities. The range has been between $1,500/week to $1,900/week.

We don’t recommend any traveling PT’s, OT’s and SLP’s, even new grads, take pay packages less than $1,500/week after taxes in any area. Some companies and recruiters will do their best to take advantage of new travelers, new grads especially, by offering them very low pay, knowing that they don’t really have a baseline of what pay should be yet as a traveler. This is why having a mentor in your corner as a new traveler is vital to keep from getting taken advantage of when starting out! Reach out to us with questions and for recruiter/company recommendations and we will be happy to help you!

How to Accurately Compare Pay for Travel Jobs to Permanent Positions

When comparing pay from a travel job to a permanent job, I often find that people get confused by the weekly take home amounts quoted for travel contracts. An individual that has never taken a travel contract will see $1,650/week take home, multiply that by 52 (weeks in a year) and then compare that to their permanent job gross salary and determine that travel isn’t worth it.

As we figured out above, that is no where near an accurate comparison. You have to either convert the gross permanent pay into a weekly take home amount (using the 25% rule of thumb above or the PayCheckCity site) as we did above, or convert the weekly take home pay of a travel therapist into an equivalent amount if it was a permanent position. The second is a more difficult calculation with no easy rule of thumb since tax rates increase significantly as pay gets higher, but luckily PayCheckCity makes it much easier using their “Gross Up” calculator. Let’s see what gross pay you’d have to make at a permanent job to equal the $1,650/week after taxes that Whitney and I have averaged while traveling.

Paycheckcity example2

We would have to make a staggering gross pay of $2,390/week at a permanent job to bring home the same $1,650/week take home pay that we have while traveling! That’s the equivalent of $60/hour or a salary of well over $120,000/year at a permanent job! When expressed in these terms, it’s easy to see how much more lucrative travel therapy is over a permanent job and how I was able to save over $100,000 in 1.5 years as a new grad travel therapist.

Based on our experiences and the hundreds of others travel therapists that we have talked to and mentored, it’s not unrealistic for a new grad travel therapist to make 1.5-2 times as much as they would if they took a full time permanent job right out of school.

The Bottom Line on Perm vs. Travel Jobs

It is important to remember that despite the significantly higher pay, there are some trade offs to traveling, which Whitney did a great job of outlining in her pros and cons article mentioned above. The big downsides to remember in terms of pay are that travel therapists don’t get paid time off for vacations like permanent therapists do, and it can be difficult to move from place to place in only a weekend, meaning that sometimes unwanted time off between contracts is inevitable. These factors eat into the pay of travelers, but even so, it is still significantly higher with all things considered.

I hope this helps clarify the differences in pay for permanent vs travel jobs. Please contact us or ask questions in the comments below if we can help you further understand pay, or if you have suggestions for travel topics for us to cover in the future.

What has your experience been as far as pay for permanent jobs or travel jobs? Do the numbers in the article match what you’ve seen? Let us know in the comments!